Melanie, a short explanation may help you understand what may have happened. You are obviously familiar with the function of a standard Circuit Breaker which trips on overload to protect the circuit from overheating and possibly starting a fire. The outlet in the bathroom is the GFCI that Protagonist correctly suggested as the problem. GFCI stands for Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter. It is designed to trip nearly instantaneously if it detects even a tiny abnormality between ground and the 120V source to prevent a shock or electrocution. The typical outlets that are protected by a GFCI are those in proximity to wet areas; the bath, kitchen and outside outlets, where the the likelihood of a shock hazard is the greatest. The GFCI will trip so quickly that most people never feel even the slightest tingle.
Aside from physical contact with a mis-wired or faulty appliance such as a toaster or hair dryer, wiping a protected outlet with a damp sponge or a leak in the gasket that allows moisture to enter the outside outlet may trip the GFCI. If you look closely at that GFCI outlet in the bath, you will see 2 buttons and they are labeled Test and Reset. A common reason for a tripod GFCI is accidentally pressing the Test button while plugging something into that outlet. Look closely at the front of the GFCI and you may see "Test Monthly" embossed in the plastic. I guess that's there to keep the legal staff for the GFCI manufacturer happy.