If you intend to do without an air conditioner, disconnect the 110vAC wiring for the A/C at the breaker; don't leave potentially live wires to dead-end where the air conditioner was. You could leave the wires in place rather than pull them out, once they're not connected to the breaker, but they have to be dead wires.
If you connect the wires back together, positive to neutral, where the air conditioner used to be, you've created a dead short, which will naturally trip breakers or blow fuses.
As for the power not working unless you're connected to shore power, if you're equipped with an inverter/charger, then you may have also fried the inverter/charger when the breaker blew, especially if it was charging the batteries at the time.
Engineering: Finding complex solutions to simple problems you didn't even know you had.