We've done this several times. (How embarassing). Thank God for very small friends that we could lift through the window and have them open from the inside.
This drives me crazy and we are very careful now. It may or may not be the same problem. However, when we have the screen door slide shut, then slam the outer door shut, the handle won't work from the outside. It prohibits the movement of the interior handle. So, when ever we exit, we have to check that the screen door plastic panel is open (you know so you can access the handle from inside).
Do you think that's the problem?